Latest Posts Under: Rechtsradikalismus

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This is the 27. and final article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Maik Fielitz and Laura Lotte Laloire

Trouble on the far right has become troubling for Europe. Not only do right-wing motivated attacks occur regularly against Roma camps, ethnic minorities, LGBTQI people and Jewish institutions. At the same time, a xenophobic discourse on refugees has gained momentum in politics and society and further blurred the lines between far right agitation and mainstream politics. In order to classify these events adequately, far right activism should not just be regarded as a security issue that can be eliminated by force, but as a threat that threatens the foundations of open, democratic and pluralist societies. Hence, we should be aware that far right politics are neither a new nor an isolated phenomenon but often bank on existing cultures of (gender, competitive, nativist) domination in capitalist societies.1

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This is the 26. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Halina Gąsiorowska

In Poland, the long lasting culture war1 over gender roles and religion has been easily framed by the far right into Samuel Huntington’s concept of the “clash of civilizations”. A well-known juxtaposition used in right-wing propaganda: ‘civilization of life’ vs. ‘civilization of death’ in reference to anti-abortion and pro-choice movements respectively is now used to refer to Christians and Muslims. The role of Polish women and the right to abortion remain in the center of the conflict of modernity.

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Dies ist der 25. Artikel in unserer Blogreihe Trouble on the­ Far-Right. Für mehr Informationen, bitte hier klicken.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

von Kathalena Essers

Ein Mädchen auf einem Fahrrad. Weiße Bluse, schwarzer langer Rock, weiße Socken, schwarze Schuhe. Sie fährt durch eine idyllische, friedlich wirkende, sommerliche Landschaft. Unter dem Foto steht: „Revolt against the modern world – justnationalistgirls“.1

Eine Demonstration. Einzig bengalische Feuer erleuchten die Dunkelheit. Schemenhaft erkennt man eine Frau, die auf eine gefährlich anmutende Menge zugeht. Sie wirkt stark. Unter dem Foto steht: „The night’s still young – justnationalistgirls“.2

Dass rechte Bewegungen Facebook zur Mobilisierung nutzen, ist bekannt. Auch die extrem rechte Facebookseite justnationalistgirls, die knapp 9000 Nutzer*innen liken, transportiert extrem rechte Inhalte, jedoch ungleich subtiler verpackt, als es auf so manch dezidiert neonazistischer Facebookseite der Fall ist. Justnationalistgirls und ähnliche Seiten3 reproduzieren auf den ersten Blick, scheinbar harmlos, eine idealisierte Vorstellung von Mädchen und jungen Frauen, die ihr heimisches Idyll beschützen möchten. Die im April 2014 gegründete Seite hat sich vor allem in Frankreich, Deutschland, Österreich, Polen und den USA eine Anhänger*innenschaft erarbeitet. Die generelle Botschaft ist nicht offensichtlich erkennbar. Mit Sicherheit gesagt werden kann jedoch, dass justnationalistgirls mindestens zwei, scheinbar widersprüchliche Weiblichkeitsbilder verbreitet, welche in den meisten rechten Gruppen oder Bewegungen Anklang finden: Zum einen die traditionelle Rolle der Frau als Mutter der Nation, zum anderen die der Kämpferin neben dem Mann im „nationalen Befreiungskampf“.

Icon Blogfokus Far Right

Dies ist der 24. Artikel in unserer Blogreihe Trouble on the­ Far-Right. Für mehr Informationen, bitte hier klicken.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

von Tobias Hoff

Dass deutsche Neonazis ins europäische Ausland fahren um dort an „Gedenkmärschen“ teilzunehmen, stellt grundsätzlich keinen Widerspruch dar.1 Die extreme Rechte oder der Neonazismus war und ist kein rein nationales Phänomen. Schon im 20. Jahrhundert existierten diverse Bündnisse unter den faschistischen Bewegungen in Europa und auch heute haben sich in verschiedenen europäischen Ländern extrem rechte Bewegungen und Organisationen etabliert, die sich grenzüberschreitend vernetzen, kooperieren und eine (gemeinsame) Straßenpolitik betreiben.

In der Begründung einer länderübergreifenden Zusammenarbeit rekurriert die extreme Rechte auf verschiedene Europakonzeptionen und -vorstellungen. Innerhalb des deutschen Neonazismus existiert eine starke Bezugnahme auf eine Europa-Idee, die auf völkisch-rassistische Ordnungsvorstellungen des Nationalsozialismus zurückgreift. Einen wichtigen Anknüpfungspunkt stellt die Heroisierung der SS bzw. der Divisionen dar, in denen „Waffenbrüder“ aus verschiedenen europäischen Ländern gekämpft haben. Die Orientierung an einem vermeintlichen Kampf für eine „weiße Rasse“ und ein „freies Europa der Völker“ dient der extremen Rechten auch heute als gemeinsame Basis für transnationale Kooperationen. Neben dieser allgemeinen europäischen Ausrichtung der extremen Rechten, existieren weitere konkrete Beweggründe und Faktoren, die dazu führen, dass deutsche Neonazis im europäischen Ausland an Demonstrationen teilnehmen. Ausschlaggebend können persönliche oder organisatorische Kontakte und Freundschaften zwischen extrem rechten Gruppen und Einzelpersonen sein. Dies ist besonders in Grenzgebieten der Fall, und daher finden oft durch die räumliche Nähe transnationale Kooperationen statt. Darüber hinaus kann auch die Hoffnung, sich an Ausschreitungen und Übergriffen beteiligen zu können, ein Grund für deutsche Neonazis sein, sich auf Reisen zu begeben.

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This is the 23. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Caterina Froio

According to several observers new waves of refugees’ arrivals could increase the popularity of far right organizations.1 In these interpretations electoral and political support should be promoted by societal resonance of ethnocentric discourses. Recent data from the Eurobarometer illustrates that in EU-member states migration from non-EU countries is now considered to be the most important concern that the Union is facing. This is a sudden shift with respect to the results of the 2013 Eurobarometer where – in the middle of the euro crisis – EU citizens seemed to be more concerned about the economy and unemployment. I propose to place the magnifying glass on the arguments developed by these organizations by focusing on the least researched members of the far right family: nonparty organizations. After introducing CasaPound Italia (CPI) it will be discussed what fuels its anti-migrant’s discourse by highlighting continuities and changes with respect to classic nativist far right rhetoric. Digging into the arguments is crucial to getting a better assessment of their potential appeal especially in a favorable context.

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This is the 22. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Heiko Koch

Changing political and economic situations generate new types of political protagonists – the far right is no exception here. Whether its structures and organizational forms endure, whether they diffuse (trans)nationally, whether their models prove successful, depends on various factors. A model that is currently about to serve as a flagship for the far right in Europe is the neo-fascist movement / party CasaPound. So why is this organizational model within the far right in Italy and Europe so successful?

My contribution is intended to shed light on the hybridity of CasaPound and the resulting force for the renewal of fascism. To carry out my argument, I will first describe the evolution of CasaPound from a movement to a party. Then I will discuss strategies and practices in terms of organizational and ideological hybridization, to finally outline the European dimension of the self-proclaimed „fascists of the third millennium“.

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This is the 21. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Samuel Bouron

French far right activism experienced tremendous changes in recent years. Besides traditional far right party politics, new patterns of street-based mobilization attract especially action-oriented youths. This trend is epitomized by the growing popularity of the Bloc Identitaire (official name; shortened to “Identitaires”). Its ideology rests on the idea that there exists a struggle between different political families in order to become the legitimate representative of the people, and that the extreme right is winning this struggle. Behind the scenes, the recurring idea of the Bloc Identitaires is to occupy a cultural and “meta-political” territory that was once the monopoly of the left. Their aim is that they are gradually associated with the only possible alternative to change the world. They try to frame a maximum of popular needs and present themselves as substitutes for when the economy and the state will be bankrupt. So you can eat the food of the Identitaires, drink their beer (the “Desouchière”), buy their clothes, listen to their music or read their books and thus participate in financing the movement.

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This is the 20. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Laura Lotte Laloire

Just a few days ago during a parliamentary session, a Kurdish deputy was violently attacked and injured by members of the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP). As if to support Charles Tilly’s statement that ‘political violence occurs when actors have few opportunities, yet enough resources to mobilize for violence’1, many groups in Turkey are currently involved in a battle against Kurdish, Alevi or left Turkish citizens. The Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in a political stalemate, uses military and police, but also the Nationalist Movement Party’s (MHP) youth organization Grey Wolves as well as Islamist militias like Esedullah Timleri (Arabic for: Lions of Allah) have increasingly resorted to violence as tool of action.

Political violence has been a central characteristic of the Turkish far right, which largely resembles street-based mobilization in Western Europe. Despite the common ultra-nationalist ideology, the Gülen Movement (GM) stands out. AKP’s former “soft-power instrument” now appears to be the only reasonable and non-violent player among all of these self-named animal groups. Since the power struggle escalated between Erdoğan and Fethullah Gülen in 2013, the GM has been seen as a victim of Erdoğan’s repressive measures, instead of making itself conspicuous by using violence. How can we explain this exception?

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This is the 19. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Natascha Strobl and Julian Bruns

On April 14th, activists of the Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (Identitarian Movement Austria) entered the stage during a performance of Elfriede Jelinek’s play “Die Schutzbefohlenen” (The Wards) in the main hall of the University of Vienna. Some of the 30 persons showed a banner soaked in artificial blood that said: “Ihr Heuchler!” (You hypocrites!). Actors – among them refugees and children – were shocked. It was the intervention of some antifascist audience members that ended the disruption. This media-attracting act ranks among several incidents caused by New Right actors which have received increasing attention in the German and Austrian public. From the early 2000s on, the New Right established new specialized forms of media and institutions – and increasingly took to the streets. The Identitarians are the spearhead of this new strategic development. At first glance, this might look like a contradiction since the very definition of New Right is the one of a movement which has shifted from action to intellectual debate. But this is only one side of the story.

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This is the 18. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Holger Marcks

When it comes to change in social environments, a parable of philosopher Charles Handy gets pulled out quickly. If you drop a frog in boiling water, it jumps out immediately; but placed in cold water slowly warming up, it acclimates itself and falls to sleep, unaware of being boiled alive. The parable reminds us of the perceptional relativity of change: Within communities creeping developments cause habituation, abrupt breaks an arousing shock. In terms of social movements this truism becomes apparent in a double way: On the one hand, erupting crises may destabilize social orders and create the necessary space for dissident actors to gain momentum – while they would fail to mobilize outside the scenario of an anxious community gasping for a new guarantor of order. On the other hand, the rise of a dissident actor with unconventional performances may work as a shock triggering withdrawal reflexes in the broader society – while dissidents with relative habitual sentiments can find resonance in communities disappointed by the ruling order.

Does this perspective offer a potential to explain the rise of far right movements in Europe? Let’s examine it by the example of Germany where, in the last two years, far right actors have experienced a remarkable gain in political acceptance – on the streets, in the booths and in the talk shows. In this case, it could be argued that their success in protest and electoral mobilizations as well as their disproportionate high presence in the media rests on communication politics that effect a normalization of far right positions previously disreputed in public discourse. Through this creeping habituation by society, they are able to gain momentum in situations of crisis, producing themselves successfully as a legitimate agent of the “anxious citizens” disappointed by the government. To test this little argument, a finger exercise in frame analysis seems to be proper, a tool common in social movement studies to explain why certain ideas in certain contexts are potent to mobilize audiences – and are not in others.

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Dies ist der 17. Artikel in unserer Blogreihe Trouble on the­ Far-Right. Für mehr Informationen, bitte hier klicken.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

von Mathias Schmidt

Um eines gleich deutlich zu machen: Über rechtsradikale Tendenzen in der Ukraine zu schreiben ist ein Drahtseilakt. Schließlich ist die Debatte in einen größeren Kontext eingebettet: Seit den Ereignissen auf dem Maidan 2014 und dem anschließenden Regime-Change erheben pro-russische Medien die sachlich schwer begründbare Beschuldigung, dass der Westen den Charakter der „faschistischen Junta in Kiew“ verkenne. Auf der anderen Seite bagatellisieren einige Publikationen die real existierenden rechten Umtriebe in der Ukraine beträchtlich. So handelt man sich schnell den Vorwurf ein, wahlweise „die faschistischen Ukrainer“ zu protegieren oder sich „den imperialistischen Russen“ anzubiedern. An dieser Stelle bleibt die notwendige Aufgabe Meinungen von Fakten zu trennen.

Die bedeutendste Kraft der parlamentarischen Rechten in der Ukraine ist die „Freiheitspartei“ Swoboda. Ihre Beteiligung an der Übergangsregierung nach den Maidan-Protesten galt einigen Beobachtern als Beweis für einen Rechtsruck in der Ukraine. Mittlerweile verfügt diese Partei nicht einmal mehr über eine parlamentarische Fraktion. Wie ist es dazu gekommen? Welche Dynamiken stehen dahinter? Ist letztendlich alles in trockenen Tüchern und die Gefahr von rechts gebannt?

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Dies ist der 16. Artikel in unserer Blogreihe Trouble on the­ Far-Right. Für mehr Informationen, bitte hier klicken.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

von Nikolaus Brauns

„Wir sind zwar hinter Gittern, aber unsere Ideen sind an der Macht“, erklärte der Führer der Grauen Wölfe, Alparslan Türkeş nach dem Militärputsch vom 12. September 1980 in der Türkei. Damals hatten die Generäle als Zeichen ihrer angeblichen Neutralität neben Zehntausenden inhaftierten Linken auch einige hundert Anhänger der faschistischen Grauen Wölfe anklagen lassen. Entsprechend könnten sich heute seine Nachfolger rühmen: „Wir sind zwar nicht an der Regierung, aber unsere Ideen sind an der Macht.“ Denn die Herrschaft der seit 2002 alleine regierenden und gemeinhin als islamisch-konservativ charakterisierten Partei für Gerechtigkeit und Aufschwung (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi – AKP) von Staatspräsident Recep Tayyip Erdoğan und Ministerpräsident Ahmet Davutoğlu stützt sich zunehmend auf die Ideologie, die Methoden und selbst das Personal der Grauen Wölfe. Umgekehrt ist die offiziell in der Opposition stehende parlamentarische Vertretung der Grauen Wölfe, die Partei der Nationalistischen Bewegung (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi – MHP) eine Kriegsallianz mit der AKP-Regierung gegen die kurdische Befreiungsbewegung eingegangen.

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This is the 15. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
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by Oliver Saal

Germany’s political culture currently faces a shift to the right as anti-immigrant violence and attacks on refugee camps are on the brink of becoming a daily routine. The populist party Alternative für Deutschland (Alternative for Germany) did achieve successes in every recent federal state election. Through their success politics gained a new political quality. Anti-immigrant groups such as PEGIDA in Dresden regularly mobilize hundreds and sometimes thousands of people. The increased number of refugees that came to Germany in 2015 is instrumentalized to fuel racism and to spread nationalist sentiments.

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This is the 14. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Yordan Kutiyski

Ever since Bulgaria’s admission to the European Union (EU) in 2007, the country’s domestically weak far right has managed to send its representatives to the European Parliament (EP). Prior to 2014, these MEPs remained largely isolated, retaining a non-affiliated status. Initially, Volen Siderov’s far right party Attack, the first of its kind in post-communist Bulgaria, won three seats in the legislative body in 2007. Formed in 2005, Attack quickly gained electoral support, conveying a strong xenophobic and anti-minority rhetoric combined with emphasis on Orthodox Christian values and opposition to globalization. No other Bulgarian party has previously sought to attract voters using such a strategy. Attack participated in the short-lived Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty group in the EP. Further efforts for constructing a lasting political grouping on the far right with the participation of Bulgarian parties remained futile, making their influence on debate-shaping and decision-making hardly possible. Winning a seat less in 2009, Attack remained outside of any recognized EP political group.

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This is the 13. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. For more information on the series, please click here.
Logo: Strike a Light by Rob Howard under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Stijn van Kessel

The environment for populist radical right (PRR) parties in Europe is favourable. Both the refugee crisis as well as the recent terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels have ostensibly fuelled further xenophobic and anti-Islam sentiments among European publics, on the basis of which PRR parties have been shown to build their support. Recent elections in Europe have indeed seen good results for parties with an outspoken xenophobic message, the victories in March 2016 for the Alternative for Germany (AfD) in the German regional elections and two far right parties (SNS and L’SNS) in the Slovak national elections being cases in point. Opinion polls in countries such as France and the Netherlands look equally promising for PRR parties. Even though not all European countries have witnessed the successful mobilisation of the PRR, it is fair to conclude that this party family is going strong. It would be too quick to conclude, however, that PRR parties only thrive on the recent salience of the immigration issue.

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